20(a) Provide the name and full description of the community that the applicant is committing to serve
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|.tatar||Limited Liability Company ʺCoordination Center of Regional Domain of Tatarstan Republicʺ||cctld.ru||View|
The applied-for TLD .TATAR is designated for a specific ethnic and language community Tatars (Tatar: Tatarlar ⁄ Татарлар, sometimes spelled Tartars). Tatars are Turkic-speaking people numbering roughly 8m worldwide. Most Tatars (around 5.5m) reside in Russian Federation, of whom over 2m are residents of the Republic of Tatarstan. Significant minority populations are found in Uzbekistan, Poland, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, China and USA.
The Tatar language together with the Bashkir language forms the Kypchak-Bolgar (also ʺUralo-Caspianʺ) group within the Kypchak languages (Northwestern Turkic).
While Tatars formed different groups by regions of residence, they speak the same language, with just minor local differences, which gave rise to a number of dialects. There are three Tatar dialects: Eastern, Central, and Western ones. The Central (Volga) Tatar is the base of literary Tatar.
As concerns the alphabet, Tatar is a Russian Cyrillic-based language, with 6 additional letters therein. By the Russian Federation Constitution, Tatars exercise the right to use the native language as the second official language, together with Russian, of the Republic of Tatarstan.
The name “Tatar” is likely to have originated from the nomadic Tatar confederation of northeastern Mongolia in the region around Lake Baikal in the beginning of the 5th century. The Chinese term is Dadan (韃靼), which a comparatively specific term to label nomads to the north that had emerged in the late Tang. Other names were Dadan and Tatan. The name ʺTatarsʺ was used an alternative term for the Shiwei, a nomadic confederation to which those Tatar people belonged.
As various of these nomadic groups became part of Genghis Khanʹs army in the early 13th century, a fusion of Mongol and Turkic elements took place, and the invaders of Rus and the Pannonian Basin became known to Europeans as Tatars or Tartars. After the breakup of the Mongol Empire, the Tatars became especially identified with the western part of the empire, known as the Golden Horde.
Since the 15th century, Tatars became subjects of the Russian tzar and, subsequently, the Russian Empire, the USSR and, since 1991, of the Russian Federation and formed the Republic of Tatarstan (in the Soviet time known as the Tatar Autonomous Republic).
Since 1991, Tatarstan is one of a few Russia’s constitutional Subjects to have its own Constitution (last amended in 2002), elect the President and the Parliament.
The Republic of Tatarstan sits on 67,836.2 sq. km. in the central part of the Russian Federation on the East-European plain at the confluence of two major European rivers – the Volga and the Kama. The Republic’s capital city is Kazan. The city of Kazan is located at 797 km to the East of Moscow.
The population of Tatarstan is a. 3.8 m., with representatives of over 70 ethnic groups residing in the Republic. The most numerous ethnic groups are the Tatars and the Russians. Official languages in Tatarstan are Tatar and Russian.
From the economic perspective, Tatarstan is one of the most advanced Russian regions. The Republic is located in the middle of a vast industrial region of the Russian Federation at the crossroads of crucial arteries linking the East with the West, the North and the South.
The Republic of Tatarstan boasts vast natural resources, powerful and diversified industry, and high-quality human capital.
The Republic’s major industries are fuel and petrochemical sectors (oil extraction, manufacture of chemical rubber, tiers, polyethylene, and wide range of oil refining products), large machine building enterprises which return rival product (heavy trucks, helicopters, aircraft and aircraft engines, compressors and oil and gas pump equipment, river and sea vessels, a range of motor cars) as well as advanced electric- and radio- instrument-making. The 2011 gross regional product (GRP) was Rb 1,250bn (USD 40bn-plus). Manufacturing output value for January-December 2011 hit Rb 1,294.5bn. Trade and economic relations with Near- and Far-Abroad countries are paramount for the Republic’s economy: presently, over 120 foreign countries trade with the Republic of Tatarstan, whose foreign trade turnover by late 2011 stood at USD 25.2bn, up by 128.8% to the prior year.
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