22 Describe proposed measures for protection of geographic names at the second and other levels in the applied-for gTLD
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22. Protection of Geographic Names
The City of Stockholm will protect names with national or geographic significance by reserving the country and territory names at the second level and at all other levels within the TLD, as per the requirements in the New TLD Registry Agreement (Specification 5, paragraph 5).
The City of Stockholm will employ a series of rules to translate the geographical names required to be reserved by Specification 5, paragraph 5 to a form consistent with the ʺhost namesʺ format used in domain names.
Reserved names for the City of Stockholm
There are 117 official City Districts within Stockholm’s City Council. As the objective of the gTLD .stockholm is to be solely registered and owned by the City of Stockholm for the marketing and communication purposes of municipal information to the citizens and businesses in Stockholm as well as to deliver official information to Stockholm visitors, local geographical names like City Districts are essential for the correct and meaningful usage of .stockholm. The names of these City Districts will be reserved for the City District Administrations to register. The City of Stockholm will also be able to register names of potential and actual new City District conversions in the future.
Thus, the following geographical names have been reserved for Stockholm’s City Districts beforehand and will be released when ordered internally from the municipal entity in question:
Abrahamsberg, Akalla, Alvik, Aspudden, Bagarmossen, Bandhagen, Beckomberga, Björkhagen, Blackeberg, Bredäng, Bromma Kyrka, Bromsten, Bällsta, Djurgården, Eneby, Enskede gård, Enskededalen, Enskedefältet, Fagersjö, Farsta, Farsta strand, Farstanäset, Flaten, Flysta, Fredhäll, Fruängen, Gamla Enskede, Gamla stan, Grimsta, Gröndal, Gubbängen, Gärdet, Hagsätra, Hammarbyhöjden, Hansta naturreservat, Herrängen, Hjorthagen, Husby, Hägersten, Hägerstensåsen, Hässelby gård, Hässelby strand, Hässelby villastad, Högdalen, Höglandet, Hökarängen, Johanneshov, Kista, Kristineberg, Kungsholmen, Kälvesta, Kärrtorp, Larsboda, Liljeholmen, Lilla Essingen, Liseberg, Lunda, Långbro, Långholmen, Långsjö, Marieberg, Mariehäll, Midsommarkransen, Mälarhöjden, Nockeby, Nockebyhov, Norra Djurgården, Norra Ängby, Norrmalm, Nälsta, Olovslund, Orhem, Reimersholme, Riddarholmen, Riksby, Rinkeby, Råcksta, Rågsved, Skarpnäcks gård, Skeppsholmen, Skrubba, Skärholmen, Sköndal, Smedslätten, Solberga, Solhem, Stadshagen, Stora Essingen, Stora mossen, Stureby, Sundby, Svedmyra, Sätra, Södermalm, Södra Hammarbyhamnen, Södra Ängby, Tallkrogen, Tensta, Traneberg, Ulvsunda, Vasastan, Vinsta, Vällingby, Västberga, Västertorp, Vårberg, Älvsjö, Äppelviken, Åkeshov, Åkeslund, Ålsten, Årsta, Örby, Örby slott, Östberga, Östermalm.
Considering the Governmental Advisory Committee (GAC) advice “Principles regarding new gTLDs”, these domains will be blocked, at no cost to governments, public authorities, or IGOs, before the TLD is introduced (Sunrise), so that no parties may apply for them. The City of Stockholm will publish a list of these names before Sunrise, so the appointed registrar and prospective applicants within the City can be aware that these names are reserved.
The City of Stockholm will define a procedure so that governments can request the above reserved domain(s) if they would like to take possession of them. This procedure will be based on existing methodology developed for the release of country names in the .INFO TLD. For example, the .stockholm registry will require a written request from the country’s GAC representative, or a written request from the country’s relevant Ministry or Department. The City of Stockholm will allow the designated beneficiary (the Registrant) to register the name, with an accredited Afilias Registrar, possibly using an authorization number transmitted directly to the designated beneficiary in the country concerned.
Other Swedish geographical names including City Councils or City Districts, such as Malmö or Göteborg, cannot be registered without written consent or approval from the locally responsible County Council, Country District, County Administrative Board or Council.
As defined by Specification 5, paragraph 5, such geographic domains may be released to the extent that Registry Operator reaches agreement with the applicable government(s). Registry operator will work with respective GAC representatives of the country’s relevant Ministry of Department to obtain their release of the names to the Registry Operator.
If internationalized domains names (IDNs) are introduced in the TLD in the future, we will also reserve the IDN versions of the country names in the relevant script(s) before IDNs become available to the public. If the City of Stockholm finds it advisable and practical, it will confer with relevant language authorities so that the City can reserve the IDN domains properly along with their variants.
Regarding GAC advice regarding second-level domains not specified via Specification 5, paragraph 5: All domains awarded to registrants are subject to the Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP), and to any properly-situated court proceeding. The City of Stockholm will ensure appropriate procedures to allow governments, public authorities or IGO’s to challenge abuses of names with national or geographic significance at the second level. In its registry-registrar agreement, and flowing down to registrar-registrant agreements, the registry operator will institute a provision to suspend domains names in the event of a dispute. The City of Stockholm may exercise that right in the case of a dispute over a geographic name.
Eliminated risk of cyber-squatters and defensive registration
Based on the regulations of the .stockholm registry, only the City of Stockholm can register domain names under .stockholm for its municipal entities, which erases the risk of cyber-squatters completely. This means that defensive second-level domain registration will not be an issue at all under .stockholm, as other entities outside the administrative body of the City of Stockholm cannot register or own a .stockholm domain name, as it will not be an open gTLD. This in turn means that no registered trademarks of private actors can be registered under .stockholm. In conclusion, trademark owners need not to worry on trademark infringement on the Internet under .stockholm, which mostly is the reason for defensive registrations. .stockholm registry follows thus section 2.9 of the GAC Principles of new gTLDs.
In conclusion, it is the interest of the City of Stockholm to be a reliable and trustworthy registry according to the GAC principles of new gTLDs as well as ICANNs regulations. The registry is only more than interested to protect others countries’ and regions’ geographical names and thus will deliver registry guidelines and processes to minimize the risk of such registrations under .stockholm as well as to deliver all support needed in case the registry will be approached by governments, public authorities or IGOs.
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