20(a) Provide the name and full description of the community that the applicant is committing to serve
|gTLD||Full Legal Name||E-mail suffix||Detail|
|.shia||Asia Green IT System Bilgisayar San. ve Tic. Ltd. Sti.||gmail.com||View|
Islam and Muslims:
Islam is the monotheistic religion articulated by the Qurʹan (a text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God) and by the teachings and normative example (called the Sunnah and composed of Hadith) of Muhammad - considered by them to be the last prophet of God. An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim.
Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root s-l-m which forms a large class of words mostly relating to concepts of wholeness, completion and bonding⁄joining. In a religious context it means ʺvoluntary submission to Godʺ. Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb of which Islām is the infinitive. Believers demonstrate submission to God by serving God and following his commands, and rejecting polytheism. The word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Qurʹan. In some verses (ayat), there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal conviction: ʺWhomsoever God desires to guide, He expands his breast to Islam.ʺ Other verses connect islām and dīn (usually translated as ʺreligionʺ): ʺToday, I have perfected your religion (dīn) for you; I have completed My blessing upon you; I have approved Islam for your religion.ʺ Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. Another technical meaning in Islamic thought is as one part of a triad of Islam, imān (faith), and ihsān (excellence) where it represents acts of service (`ibādah) and Islamic law (sharia). Regardless of personal interpretation of the word, one thread remains continually true; Islam is a word that commands an unparalleled sense of devotion – and level of affinity - amongst Muslims. It denotes not only a religion, but an enormously proud community – and members within that community strongly associate who they are with the word Islam.
Muslims maintain that previous messages and revelations have been partially changed or corrupted over time, but consider the Qurʹan to be both the unaltered and the final revelation of God— his Final Testament.
Most Muslims will accept anyone who has publicly pronounced the Shahadah (declaration of faith) which states, ʺI testify that there is no god except for the God [Allah], and I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of the Godʺ, as a Muslim. Their basic religious practices are enumerated in the Five Pillars of Islam, which are basic concepts and obligatory acts of worship, and following Islamic law, which touches on virtually every aspect of life and society, providing guidance on multifarious topics from banking and welfare, to warfare and the environment. These consist of daily prayers (salat), fasting during Ramadan (sawm), almsgiving (zakat), and the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj) at least once in a lifetime.
Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable and the purpose of their existence is to love and serve God. Muslims also believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed at many times and places before, including through Abraham, Moses and Jesus, whom they consider prophets.
A comprehensive demographic study undertaken in 2009, which examined 232 countries and territories, reported that 23% of the global population, or 1.57 billion people at that time, considered themselves to be Muslims. This number is inevitably larger today. According to the study, there are approximately 50 countries worldwide where the majority of citizens are Muslim. It also found that Arabs account for around 20% of all Muslims worldwide. Between 1900 and 1970 the global Muslim community grew from 200 million to 551 million; between 1970 and 2009 Muslim population increased more than threefold, to 1.57 billion.
The study established that the majority of Muslims live in Asia and Africa. Approximately 62% of the worldʹs Muslims live in Asia, with over 683 million adherents in Indonesia, Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh. In the Middle East, non-Arab countries such as Turkey and Iran are the largest Muslim-majority countries; in Africa, Egypt and Nigeria have the most populous Muslim communities. About 13% of Muslims live in Indonesia, the largest Muslim country, 25% in South Asia, 20% in the Middle East, 2% in Central Asia, 4% in the remaining South East Asian countries, and 15% in Sub-Saharan Africa. Sizable communities are also found in Russia and parts of Europe.
Most estimates indicate that the Peopleʹs Republic of China has approximately 20 to 30 million Muslims (1.5% to 2% of the population). However, data provided by the San Diego State Universityʹs International Population Center to U.S. News & World Report suggests that China has 65.3 million Muslims. Islam is the second largest religion after Christianity in many European countries, and is slowly catching up to that status in the Americas, with reportedly somewhere between 2,454,000 (according to Pew Forum) and approximately 7 million Muslims, according to the Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR), in the United States.
Shia Muslim Community:
Of this extensive Muslim population, it is estimated 10–20% belong to the Shia sect. As such, Shia Islam is the religions’ second largest denomination (or sect). In a 2009 study, it was found that Shia followers may number in excess of 200 million. Countries in which the Shia sect represents the majority of Muslim citizens include Iran, Iraq, Azerbaijan and Bahrain. Shias also constitute 36.3% of entire local population and 38.6% of the local Muslim population of the Middle East. Shia Muslims also constitute over 35% of the population in Lebanon, over 45% of the population in Yemen, 20-40% of the population in Kuwait, over 20% in Turkey, 10–20% of the population in Pakistan, and 10-19% of Afghanistanʹs population.
Like other schools of thought in Islam, Shia Islam is based on the teachings of the Quran and the message of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. In contrast to other schools of thought, Shias believe that only God has the right to choose a representative to safeguard Islam, the Quran and sharia (based upon verses in the Quran which stipulate this according to Shias). For this reason, Shias look to Ali, whom they consider divinely appointed, as the rightful successor to Muhammad, and the first imam. Shias believe that there are numerous narrations where Muhammad selected Ali as his successor.
Shias believe that Muhammadʹs family, the Ahl al-Bayt (ʺthe People of the Houseʺ), and certain individuals among his descendants, who are known as Imams, have special spiritual and political authority over the community. Therefore, Shias prefer hadiths attributed to the Ahl al-Bayt and close associates, and have their own separate collection of hadiths. All Shias agree on the succession of Hassan and Hussein after Ali, but they may differ after Hussein. Hassan and Hussein are described by Shias as ʺleaders of all youths in Paradiseʺ, and believe that these sons of Ali were the true leaders and caliphs of the Muslims. Shias regard Ali as the successor of Muhammad not only ruling over the community in justice, but also interpreting Islamic practices and their esoteric meaning. Hence he was regarded as being free from error and sin (infallible), and appointed by divine decree of God (nass) to be the first Imam. Ali is known as ʺperfect manʺ (al-insan al-kamil) similar to Muhammad, according to Shia viewpoint.
Shias believe strongly in their interpretation of the Islamic faith, and thus feel a prodigious sense of association between their belief and who they are as a people – and an affinity with fellow believers. The .SHIA gTLD will thus allow these disparate but related peoples--connected through their religion and beliefs--to unite online as a full and robust community, enjoying the connection and exchange of information empowered by faith, and community in beliefs.
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